Registered as a Muslim This article, based on a recently published book, looks at one aspect of society that is at the root of these challenges. The book illustrates how segregation of society on religious lines underpins discrimination, undermines the rule of law and fuels violence. This segregation is imposed and maintained by the religious registration system. The book takes the reader on a tour of the countries of the Middle East using stories of people to illustrate the profound effects of this system on individuals, families, and society as a whole. Interspersed coque waterproof iphone 6s commandokieffer31727 in the chapters on each country are thematic chapters including limitations on who can marry whom, who can worship yellowcard logo z3723 coque samsung galaxy s7 with whom, apostasy, martyrdom, and burial. Among coque fluide iphone 6 commandokieffer35524 the surprising insights is that burial rights are a significant impediment to the growth of the church in some communities. coque samsung galaxy s4 fnac What is religious registration Everyone is assigned to a faith at birth. The registration might be generic, eg Christian, or very specific, eg Roman Catholic, Anglican. The registration is held in government IT systems and shown on some official documents, notably birth certificates and (in many countries) identity cards. cover iphone 11 audi logo The registration determines which religiously based legal system is applicable for personal status legal matters such as marriage, divorce, custody, burial, and inheritance. coque samsung There is no complementary civil system; everyone is compelled to use a religiously based system. Islamic Shari’a, Christian Canon law, and Jewish Halakha law determine the personal status laws that apply to the respective communities. Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max Pretty Little Liars L1279 Case The Ottomans did not invent this system. Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max Spiderman L3182 Case The earliest recorded use is in the fourth century when it was applied to the communities of the Church of the East under the Sassanid Persian Empire. Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max omega skin fortnite Z4908 Case Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max Deathly Hallows Z4707 Case This empire’s state religion was Zoroastrianism. The Christians formed the Church of the East, whose leader, referred to as the Catholicos or Patriarch of the East, was responsible to the Persian king for the Christians within the Empire. This system of maintaining Christians as a protected and respected religious community continued after the Islamic conquest of the Sassanids in 651. The Christian community flourished and was able to send missionaries to China and India. Religious registration emerged during periods of history with limited social, economic, and geographic mobility. Religious registration emerged during periods of history with limited social, economic, and geographic mobility. Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max Flash minimalist siluet Z1694 Case Most people lived their whole lives close to where they were born. cover custodia case iphone 11 U1356 darkest dungeon wallpaper 16qJ8 Exceptions to this pattern were rare, in spite of well established trade routes. The context of today is very different: how does the concept 6 god black coque iphone 6 coqueiphone129012 and application of religious registration need pointe shoe coque iphone 6 coqueiphone142686 adjusting for the modern context of greater mobility and urbanisation, two global trends profoundly affecting the coque iphone 8 kenzo 628antenpascher4600 Middle East Why does this matter to bart hypebeast supreme z5300 iphone 6 6s coque goldufoa2852 Christians One theme of the book is religious conversion: can converts change their religious registration to match their beliefs Conversion to Islam is legally possible and straightforward horses running y1681 coque samsung galaxy s7 everywhere; conversion from Islam is impossible in many places and in the few locations where it is possible legally, there are social and cultural impediments to change. The implementation of religious registration that we see in the Middle East today is far removed from the honourable origins under the Sassanids. sakura naruto coque iphone 11 What was designed to allow a distinct religious community to enjoy rites of passage of their choice while affirming loyalty to the political rulers is today used to marginalise those different from the majority. cover custodia case iphone 11 F9234 bts wallpaper 10yJ8 cover custodia case iphone 11 J5373 dark vador wallpaper 14tC0 It is presumed that those whose registration is not of the majority are disloyal garfield e0167 coque samsung galaxy s7 to the state and cannot be trusted. One expression of this is that in most countries there are restrictions on public sector employment for Christians. The system underpins discrimination. In Lebanon, the linkage of religious registration to the electoral system is one cause of the dysfunctionality of the political system. The population is, in general, disillusioned with the status quo. Calls for change fall into the dilemma that it difference entre coque iphone 6 et 7 commandokieffer32443 is the very politicians causing the problems who are unwilling to make the changes required to resolve the amazon rugged coque iphone 6 coqueiphone143361 situation. Personal self interest, or the interests of those close to them, means that they act to preserve their perceived power, prestige, and position, rather than act to govern for the well being of all. Lebanon is an example of the fact that segregation of society on religious lines can have profound negative consequences for all. coque huawei cover iphone 11 mountain forest Peace and reconciliation It is often claimed that Islam is a religion of peace. coque iphone 5 phrase What is meant by ‘peace’ Armed conflict can be stopped by one party surrendering unconditionally to the other. cover iphone 11 weather This brings ‘peace’ in the sense of an end to conflict, although the victors are able to impose whatever conditions they choose on the vanquished. cover custodia case iphone 11 C3682 avengers wallpaper 4zY9 It does not guarantee peace in the sense of stable, harmonious, and respectful community relations. anime coque iphone 11 girls In Egypt, inter coque otterbox symmetry iphone 6 commandokieffer31004 communal strife is often followed by a ‘reconciliation meeting’. In situations involving Christians and Muslims, what typically happens is that Muslims seek draconian terms that marginalise and disadvantage the Christians, irrespective of the rights and wrongs of the situation. In such cases, criminal behaviour is overlooked, even exonerated. Religious registration is at the root of such practices, creating a context in which those who think of themselves harley coque iphone 6 coque7iphone14649 as the majority feel that they are entitled to exploit others. The system undermines the rule of law. Much of the one piece admiral aokiji z4043 iphone xs max coque goldufoa12534 violence and exploitation in the Middle East today pits one group of Muslims against another. Much of the violence and exploitation in assassin creed unity z3436 iphone 11 pro max coque goldufoa2186 the Middle East today pits one group of Muslims against another. The primary victims of Islamic extremism are ‘Muslims of the wrong type’, meaning those different from the perpetrators, although Christians and other non Islamic religious groups are frequently caught in the cross fire. cover custodia case iphone 11 E4023 goku wallpaper 24cQ5 coque samsung a5 2017 the walking dead The book’s appendices give a summary of how the diversity within Islam, Christianity, and Judaism arose; politics, geography, and theology feature in the story of all three religions. One challenge for today is whether such diversity is to be celebrated or lamented, respected or crushed. Signs of hope So is there hope for the future The book points to several positive developments of recent years. Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max Bumblebee movie logo Z7107 Case In Egypt, what is referred to as the ‘re convert issue’ was resolved in 2011. ‘Re converts’ are those whose registration was Christian at birth but who changed to Muslim for any of a variety of reasons. cover custodia case iphone 11 W1935 wallpaper dedsec 75gO5 In 2011, the legal right to revert to being registered as Christian was clearly established following a multi year legal process. More than 4,000 people were part of the class action that secured this right. There have been no reported problems with implementation. coque huawei They cited the Palestine Basic Law enacted in 2002 which states that there should be no discrimination on the grounds of gender, ethnicity, political views, or religion. Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max Dragon Ball Sunset X8907 Case King Abdullah of Jordan is one of a number of senior political leaders urging Middle Eastern Christians to remain in their countries. Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max trunk super saiyan Z3618 Case Such statements are to be welcomed, although they appear incongruous given the stories presented in the book that illustrate Jordan’s discrimination against Christians and the very harsh manner in which the legal system can treat those who have converted from Islam. Missional and practical implications Those of us participating by prayer and other actions in spreading the good news of Jesus in the Middle East need to be aware of the challenges that confront those who come to coque iphone 6 gaara commandokieffer34117 faith in Jesus. They will face the ‘identity crisis’ of living and worshipping as Christians while being treated by the state as Muslim; their religious beliefs and registration are mint mandala coque iphone 6 coqueiphone128335 different. coque samsung j5 2016 stitch The typical pressure points are at marriage; the birth of children (whose birth certificates will describe them as Muslim); and when the children reach school age. Their children will be treated as joker typography o7622 coque samsung galaxy s7 Muslims by the state despite having been raised as Christians; the challenges to their sense of identity are profound. The consistent call of Middle Eastern Christian leaders is that we all work to enable Christians to stay, to be part of a growing church. It is acknowledged that there are a few cases where religious persecution obliges Christians to emigrate. These are the exception, not the norm. cover custodia case iphone 11 N5093 fullmetal alchemist wallpaper 21zQ4 Religious registration is the root of why Christians are treated as second class citizens. There are several implications for Middle Eastern Christians. coque iphone 5 potter Religious registration is the root of why Christians are treated as second class citizens. This is one factor prompting some to emigrate. In some places it contributes to the difficulties in operating church buildings. Custodia Cover iphone 11 pro max iron man Z2133 Case It is also one reason why integrating converts to Christianity into churches is problematic in many coque iphone 6 mexicaine commandokieffer34819 locations. cover iphone 11 ipad In some parts of the Middle East it is already the case that the majority coque iphone 6 cuir rose commandokieffer30287 of Christians are from Muslim backgrounds. The typical modus operandi of the church will be changed by this reality.